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Masonic Encyclopedia

a

In the Accadian, Greek, Etruscan, Pelasgian, Gallic, Samaritan, and Egyptian or Coptic, of nearly the same formation as the English letter. It originally meant with or together, but at present signi...

a cipher chart

Ahiman Rezon of Georgia,- and it is often used by those who are not initiated, as a means of amusement. However the use of these curious characters is common on the Royal Arch Ark of the Chapters and ...

a. a. o. n. m. s.

These letters are the initials of the words Ancient Arabic Order Noble Mystic Shrine (see shrine).. They may be rearranged to spell out the words A Mason. The claim has been made in all sincerity that...

aaron

Hebrew, A-har-ohne, a word of doubtful etymology, but generally supposed to signify a mountaineer. Mackenzie says the name means the illuminated. He was the brother of Moses, and the first High Priest...

aaron's band

A Degree instituted in 1824, in New York City, mainly for social purposes, and conferred in an independent body. Its ceremonies were similar to those of the Order of High Priesthood, which caused the ...

aaron's rod

The method by which Moses caused a miraculous judgment as to which tribe should be invested with the priesthood, is detailed in the Book of Numbers (chapter xvii). He directed that twelve rods should ...

ab

1. The 11th month of the Hebrew civil year and corresponding to the months July and Augustus, beginning with the new moon of the former. 2. It is also a Hebrew word, signifying father, and will be rea...

abaciscus

The diminutive of Abacus- and, in architecture, refers to the squares of the tessellated pavement or checkered surface of the ground floor of King Solomon's Temple.

abacus

A term which has been erroneously used to designate the official staff of the Grand Master of the Templars. The word has no such meaning ; for an abacus is either a table used for facilitating arithme...

abaddon

A Hebrew word ab-ad-done, signifying destruction. By the Rabbis it is interpreted as the place of destruction, and is the second of the seven names given by them to the region of the dead. In the Apoc...

abazar

Probably from the Hebrew word ab-ee-ay-zer, meaning helpful. The title given to the Master of Ceremonies in the Sixth Degree of the Modern French Rite.

abbreviations

Abbreviations of technical terms or of official titles are of very extensive use in Freemasonry. They were, however, but rarely employed in the earlier Masonic publications. For instance, not one is t...

abdamon

The name of the Orator in the Fourteenth Degree of the Rite of Perfection, or the Sacred Vault of James VI. The word means a servant, from abed, to serve, although somewhat corrupted in its transmissi...

abdiel

A Hebrew word meaning servant of God. The name of an angel mentioned by the Jewish Cabalists. He is represented in Milton's Paradise Lost, Book V, lines 894-7, as one of the seraphbn, who, when S...

abditorium

A secret place for the deposit of records

abelites

A secret Order which existed about the middle of the eighteenth century in Germany, called also the Order of Abel The organization was in possession of peculiar signs, words, and ceremonies of initiat...

abercorn, duke of

Grand Master of Ireland 1874 to 1885.

abercorn, earl of

James Hamilton, Lord Paisley, was named Grand Master of England by the retiring Grand Master, the Duke of Richmond, in 1725. He was at that time the Master of a Lodge, and had served on the Committee ...

aberdeen alter, the lodge

The second quarter of the Twentieth century in the 'Literature of Freemasonry was characterized above everything else by the publication (in some twenty languages) of Lodge histories. Taken colle...

aberdour, lord

Grand Master of Scotland, 1755 to 1756. Also of England 1757 to 1761.

abib

The original name of the Hebrew month Nisan, nearly corresponding to the month of March, the first of the ecclesiastical year. Abib is frequently mentioned in the sacred scriptures, and signifies gree...

abibale

The name of the first Assassin in the Elu of the Modem French Rite. The word is derived most probably from the Hebrew abi and balah, which mean father of destruction, though it is said to mean le Meur...

abif

(or ABIFF, or perhaps more correctly ABIV). A name appeared in scripture to that celebrated builder who was sent to Jerusalem by King Hiram, of Tyre, to superintend the construction of the Temple. The...

abiram

One of the traitorous craftsmen, whose act of perfidy forms so important a part of the Third Degree, receives in some of the high degrees the name of Abiram Akirop. These words certainly have a Hebrew...

able

There is an old use of the word able to signify suitable. Thus, Chaucer says of a monk that "he was able to ben an abbot," that is, suitable to be an abbot. In this sense the old manuscript ...

ablution

A ceremonial purification by washing, much used in the Ancient Mysteries and under the Mosaic Dispensation. It is also employed in some of the advanced degrees of Freemasonry. The better technical ter...

abnet

The band or apron,. made of fine linen, variously wrought, and worn by the Jewish priesthood. It seems to have been borrowed directly from the Egyptians, upon the representations of all of whose gods ...

aborigines

A secret society which existed in England about the year 1783, and of whose ceremony of initiation the following account is contained in the British Magazine of that date. The presiding officer, who w...

aboyne, george, earl of

From 1802 to 1803 Grand Master of Scotland. * ABRAC In the Leland Manuscript it is said that the Masons conceal "the wey of wynninge the facultye of Abrac." John Locke (though it is doub...

abraham

The founder of the Hebrew nation. The patriarch Abraham is personated in the Degree or Order of High Priesthood, which refers in some of its ceremonies to an interesting incident in his life, After th...

abraham, antoine firmin

A Freemason who made himself notorious at Paris, in the beginning of the nineteenth century, by the manufacture and sale of false Masonic diplomas and by trading in the higher degrees, from which traf...

abraxas

Basilides, the head of the Egyptian sect of Gnosties, taught that there were seven outflowings, emanations, or aeons, from the Supreme God ; that these emanations engendered the angels of the highest ...

abraxas stones

Stones on which the word Abrazas and other devices are engraved, and which were used by the Egyptian Gnosties as amulets.

absence

Attendance on the communications of his Lodge, on al convenient occasions, is considered as one of the duties of every Freemason, and hence the Old Charges of 1722 say that ''in ancient Time...

absence of worshipful master

Rule 141 of the English Book of Constitutions states that the Immediate Past Master or in his absence the Senior Past Master of the Lodge, or, if no Past Master of the Lodge be present, the Senior Pas...

abyssinia

A Lodge at Adis-Ababa was constituted by the 'Grand Orient of France on October 20, 1909.

acacia

An interesting and important symbol in Freemasonry. Botanically, it is the acacia vera of Tournefort, and the mimosa nilotica of Linnaeus, called babul tree in India. The acacia arabica grew abundantl...

acacian

A word introduced by Hutchinson, in his book, The Spirit of Masonry, to designate a Freemason in reference te the akakia, or innocence with which he was to be distinguished, from the Greek word axaxia...

academie des iillumines d'avignon

meaning, literally, the School of the Enlightened Ones at Avignon. The words Illumines and Illuminati have been used by various religious sects and secret societies in their names. A Hermetic system o...

academy

The Fourth Degree of the Rectified Rose Croix of Schroeder who founded a Rite by this name. ACADEMY OF ANCIENTS OR OF SECRETS The French name is Acadmie des Secrets. A society instituted at Warsaw, ...

academy of sages

An order which existed in Sweden in 1770, deriving its origin from one credited with being founded in London by Elias Ashmole, on the doctrines of the New Atlantis of Bacon. A few similar societies we...

academy of sublime masters of the luminous ring

The French name of this society is Acadmie des Sublimes Matres de l'Anneau Lumineux. Founded in France, in 1780, by Baron Blaerfindy, one of the Grand Officers of the Philosophy Scotch Rite. The ...

academy of true masons

The French name of the society is Acadmie des Vraies Maons. Founded at Montpelier, in France, by Dom Pernetty in 1778, and occupied with instructions in Hermetic Science, which were developed in six D...

academy, platonic

Founded in 1480 by Marsilius Ficinus, at Florence, under the patronage of Lorenzo de Medicis. This organization is said by the Freemasons of Tuscany to have been a secret society, and is supposed to h...

acanthus

A plant, described by Dioseorides, a Greek physician and botanist of the first century,. with broad, flexible, prickly leaves, which perish in the winter and sprout again at the return of spring. Foun...

accepted

The Worshipful Company of Masons of the City of London-a flourishing Gild at the Present day-possesses as its earliest document now existing an account book headed:1620. The Account of James Gilder M...

acception or accepcon

This term occurs in the records of the Company of Masons of London in the years 1620 and 1621 aud Brother Hawkins thought it to be the name of the non-operative or speculative body attached to that Co...

acception, the

The Masons Company of London show this phrase in one of their records, 1620-1, in connection seemingly with a non-operative or speculative body which was associated with them. In 1682 Elias Ashmole vi...

acclamation

A certain form of words used in connection with the battery. In the Scottish Rite it is hoshea; in the French vivat; in Adoptive Masonry it was Eva; and in the Rite of Misraim, hallelujh (see Battery)...

accolade

From the Latin ad and collum, meaning around the neck. Generally but incorrectly it is supposed that the accolade means the blow given on the neck of a newly created knight with the flat of the sword....

accord

We get this word from the two Latin ones ad cor, meaning to the heart, and hence it means hearty consent. Thus in Wiclif's translation we find the phrase in Philippians, which in the Authorized V...

accuser

In every trial in a Lodge for an offense against the laws and regulations or the principles of Freemasonry any Master Mason may be the accuser of another, but a profane cannot be permitted to Prefer ...

aceldama

From the Syro-Chaldaic, meaning field of blood, so called because it was purchased with the blood-money which was paid to Judas Iscariot for betraying his Lord (see Matthew xxvii, 7-10; also Acts 1, 1...

acerrellos, r. s.

A nom de plume or pen name assumed by Carl Rssler, a German Masonic writer (see Rossler).

achad

One of the names of God. The word Achad, in Hebrew signifies one or unity. It has been adopted by Freemasons as one of the appellations of the Deity from the passage in Deuteronomy (vi, 4): "Hear...

acharon schilton

In Hebrew signifying the new kingdom Significant words in some of the advanced degrees. The Latin term is given in the Manuel Maonnique (1830, page 74) as Novissimus lmperium.

achias

A corruption of the Hebrew Achijah the brother of Jah; a significant word in some of the advanced degrees.

achishar

Mentioned in first Kings iv, 6, under the name of Ahishar, and there described as being "over the household" of King Solomon. This was a situation of great importance in the East, and equiva...

achtariel

A Cabalistic name of God belonging to the Crown or first of the ten sephiroth ; and hence signifying the Crown or God. The sephiroth refer in the Cabalistic system to the ten persons, intelligence or ...

acknowledged

When one is initiated into the degree of Most Excellent Master, he is technically said to be received and acknowledged as a Most Excellent Master. This expression refers to the tradition of the degree...

acousmatici

The primary class of the disciples of Pythagoras, who served a five years' probation of silence, and were hence called acousmatici or hearers. According to Porphyry or Porphyrius, a Greek philoso...

acquittal

Under this head it may be proper to discuss two questions of Masonic law. l. Can a Freemason, having been acquitted by the courts of the country of an offense with which he has been charged, be tried...

acta latomorum

ou Chronologie de l'Histoire de la Franche-Maonnerie franaise et trangre, etc. That is: The Acts of the Freemasons, or a Chronological History of French and Foreign Freemasonry, etc. This work, w...

acting grand master

The Duke of Cumberland, grandson of George II, brother of George III, having, in April, 1782, been elected Grand Master of England, it was resolved by the Grand Lodge "that whenever a prince of t...

active lodge

A Lodge is said to be active when it is neither dormant nor suspended, but regularly meets and is occupied in the labors of Freemasonry.

active member

An active member of a lodge is one who, in contradistinction to an honorary member, assumes all the burdens of membership, such as contributions, arrears, and participation in its labors, and is inves...

actual past masters

This term is sometimes applied to those who have actually served as Master of a Craft Lodge in order to distinguish them from those who have been made Virtual Past Masters, in Chapters of the United S...

ad arel

Angel of Fire. Referred to in the Hermetic Degree of Knight of the Sun. Probably from ... pronounced eh-der, meaning splendor, and .., El, God' that is, the splendor of God or Divine splendor.

adad

The name of the principal god among the Syrians, and who, as representing the sun, had, according to Macrobius, a Roman author of about the early part of the fifth century, in the Satualiorum (I, 23),...

adam

The name of the first man. The Hebrew word, Adam, signifies man in a generic sense, the human species collectively, and is said to be derived from , Adamah, the ground, because the first man was made ...

adams, john quincy

Sixth President of the United States, who served from 1825 to 1829. Adams, who has been very properly described as "a man of strong points and weak ones, of vast reading and wonderful memory, of ...

adar

Hebrew, pronounced ad-awr; the sixth month of the civil and the twelfth of the ecclesiastical year of the Jews. It corresponds to a part of February and of March. The word has also a private significa...

adelph

From the Greek, meaning a brother. The first degree of the Order of the Palladium. Reghellini says that there exists in the archives of Douai the ritual of a Masonic Society, called Adelphs, which has...

adept

One fully skilled or well versed in any art; from the Latin word Adeptus, meaning having obtained, because the Adept claimed to be in the possession of all the secrets of his peculiar mystery. The Al...

adept, prince

One of the names of the Twenty-eighth Degree of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite (see Knight of the Sun). It was the Twenty-third Degree of the System of the Chapter of Emperors of the East and ...

adept, the

A Hermetic Degree of the collection of A. Viany. It is also the Fourth Degree of the Rite of Relaxed Observance, and first of the advanced degrees of the Rite of Elects of Truth. "It has much ana...

adeptus adoptatus

The Seventh Degree of the Rite of Zinnendorf, consisting of a kind of chemical and pharmaceutical instruction.

adeptus coronatus

Called a1so Templar Master of the Key. The Seventh Degree of the Swedish Rite.

adeptus exemptus

The Seventh Degree of the system adopted by those German Rosicrucians who were known as the Gold und Rosenkreutzer, or the Gold and Rosy Cross, and whom Lenning supposes to have been the first who eng...

adhering mason

Those Freemasons who, during the anti-Masonic excitement in America, on account of the supposed abduction of Morgan, refused to leave their Lodges and renounce Freemasonry, were so called. They embrac...

adjournment

C. W. Moore (Freemasons Magazine xii, page 290) says: "We suppose it to be generally conceded that Lodges cannot properly, be adjourned. It has been so decided by, a large proportion of the Grand...

admiration, sign of

A mode of recognition alluded to in the Most Excellent Master's Degree, or the Sixth of the American Rite. Its introduction in that place is referred to a Masonic legend in connection with the vi...

admission

Although the Old Charges, approved in 1722, use the word admitted as applicable to those who are initiated into the mysteries of Freemasonry, yet the General Regulations of 1721 employ the term admiss...

admonition

According to the ethics of Freemasonry, it is made a duty obligatory upon every member of the Order to conceal the faults of a Brother; that is, not to blazon forth his errors and infirmities, to let ...

adonai

In Hebrew, pronounced ad-o-noy, being the plural of excellence for Aden, meaning to rule, and signifying the Lord. The Jews, who reverently avoided the pronunciation of the sacred name JEHOVAH, were a...

adonhiram

This has been adopted by the disciples of Adonhiramite Freemasonry as the spelling of the name of the person known in Scripture and in other Masonic systems as Adoniram (which see). They correctly der...

adonhiramite freemasonry

Of the numerous controversies which arose from the middle to near the end of the eighteenth century on the Continent of Europe, and especially in France, among the students of Masonic philosophy, and ...

adonis, mysteries of (entry a)

An investigation of the Mysteries of Adonis peculiarity claims the attention of the Masonic student. First, because, in their symbolism and in their esoteric doctrine, the religious object for which t...

adonis, mysteries of (entry b)

An investigation of the Mysteries of Adonis peculiarly claims the attention of the Masonic student. First, because, in their symbolism and in their esoteric doctrine, the religious object for which th...

adoption masonic

The adoption by the Lodge of the child of a Freemason is practiced with peculiar ceremonies in some of the French and German Lodges, and has been introduced, but not with the general approval of the C...

adoptive freemasonry, american

The Rite of Adoption as practiced on the continent of Europe, and especially in France, has never been introduced into America. The system does not accord, with the manners or habits of the people, an...

adoptive freemasonry, egyptian

A system invented by Cagliostro (see Cagliostro).

adoration

The act of paying divine worship. The Latin word adorare is derived from ad, to, and os, oris, the mouth, and we thus etymologically learn that the primitive and most general method of adoration was b...

adrresses, masonic

Doctor Oliver, speaking oi the Masonic discourses which began to be published soon after the reorganization of Freemasonry, in the commencement of the eighteenth century, and which he thinks were inst...

adulterine gilds

In the Anglo-Saxon period of English history the majority of gilds ("frith gilds," "crich ten gilds") were religious, military, or social fraternities. In the Twelfth Century a num...

advanced

This word has two technical meanings in Freemasonry. l. We speak of a candidate as being advanced when he has passed from a lower to a higher degree; as we say that a candidate is qualified for advan...

adytum

The most retired and secret part of the ancient temples, into which the people were not permitted to enter, but which was accessible to the priests only, was called the adytum. Hence the derivation of...

aeneid

Bishop Warburton (Divine Legation of Moses Demonstrated) has contended, and his opinion has been sustained by the great majority of subsequent commentators, that Vergil, in the Sixth Book of his immor...

aeon

This word, in its original Greek, ...., signifies the age or duration of anything. The Gnostics, however, used it in a peculiar mode to designate the intelligent, intellectual, and material powers or ...

aera architectonica

This is used in some modern Masonic lapidary or monument inscriptions to designate the date more commonly known as anno lucis, the year of light.

affiliate, free

The French gave the name of Free Affiliates to those members of a Lodge who are exempted from the payment of dues, and neither hold office nor vote. These Brethren are known among English-speaking Fre...

affiliated freemason

A Freemason who holds membership in some Lodge. The word affiliation in Freemasonry is akin to the French affilier, which Richelet, Dictionnaire de la langue Franaise, Dictionary of the French Languag...

affirmation

The question has been mooted whether a Quaker, or other person having peculiar religious scruples in reference to taking oaths, can receive the degrees of Freemasonry by taking an affirmation. Now, as...

africa (entry a)

In the French Rite of Adoption, the South of the Lodge is called Africa.

africa (entry b)

Anderson (Constitutions, 1738, page195) has recorded that in 1735 Richard Hull, Esq., was appointed "Provincia1Grand Master at Gambay in West Africa," that in 1736 David Creighton, M.D., was...

africa, continent of

The historic mission of Freemasonry in Africa has been for its Lodges and other Bodies to serve as a center of union and unity in communities of which the majority of citizens belong to a conglomerate...

african architects, order of

Sometimes called African Builders; or in French, Architectes de l'Afrique; and in German, Afrikanische Bauherren. Of all the new sects and modern Degrees of Freemasonry which sprang up on the co...

african brother

One of the degrees of the Rite of the Clerks of Strict Observance, according to Thory (Acta Latorum 1, page 291), but it is not mentioned in other lists of the degrees of that Rite.

african brothers

One of the titles given to the African Architects, which see.

agapae

The Agapae, or love feasts, were banquets held during the first three centuries in the Christian Church. They were called love feasts, because, including the partaking of the Sacrament, the Brethren m...

agate

A stone varying in color, but of great hardness, being a variety of the flint. The agate, in Hebrew ..., SheBO, was the center stone of the third row in the breastplate of the High Priest. Agates oft...

agate, stone of

Among the Masonic traditions is one which asserts that the Stone of Foundation was formed of agate. This, like everything connected with the legend of the stone, is to be mystically interpreted. In th...

agathopades

A liberal ecclesiastical order founded in Brussels in the sixteenth century. Revived and revised by Schayes in 1846. It had for its sacred sign the pentastigma, a term meaning the stamp of the five po...

age, lawful

One of the qualifications for candidates is that they shall be of lawful age. What that age must be is not settled by any universal law or landmark of the Order. The Ancient Regulations do not express...

age, masonic

In some Masonic Rites a mystical age is appropriated to each degree, and the initiate who has received the degree is said to be of such an age. Thus, the age of an Entered Apprentice is said to be thr...

agenda

A Latin word meaning things to be done. Thus an "Agenda Paper" is a list of the matters to be brought before a meeting.

agla

One of the Cabalistic names of God, which is composed of the initials of the words of the following sentence: ..........., Atah Gibor Lo1am Adonai, meaning "Thou art mighty forever, O Lord."...

agnostus, irenaeus

This is supposed by Kloss (Bibliographie der Friemaurerei, Nos. 2442, 2497, etc. ) to have been a nom-de-plume or pen name of Gotthardus Arthusius, a co-rector in the Gymnasium of Frankfort-on-the-Mai...

agnus dei

The Agnus Dei, meaning the Lamb of God, also called the Paschal Lamb, or the Lamb offered in the Pascal Sacrifice, is one of the jewels of a Commandery of Knights Templar in America, and is worn by th...

agrippa, henry cornelius

Born in 1486 at Cologne, Germany, his real name being Von Nettesheim. Died in 1535 at Grenoble, France. Author of On the Vanity of the Sciences, published in 1527 at Cologne, and Libri Tres de Occulta...

ahabath olam

Two Hebrew words signifying eternal love. The name of a prayer which was used by the Jews dispersed over the whole Roman Empire during the times of Christ. It was inserted by Dermott in his Ahiman Rez...

ahiah

So spelled in the common version of the Bible (First Kings iv, 3 ), but according to the Hebrew orthography the word should be spelled and pronounced Achiah, or akh-ee-yaw according to Strong. He and ...

ahiman rezon

The title given by Dermott to the Book of Constitutions of the Grand Lodge of Ancient Freemasons in England, which was established about the middle of the eighteenth century in opposition to the leg...

aholiab

A skillful artificer of the tribe of Dan, who was appointed, together with Bezaleel, to construct the tabernacle in the wilderness and the ark of the covenant (Exodus xxxi, 6). He is referred to in th...

aid and assistance

The duty of aiding and assisting, not only all worthy distressed Master Masons, but their widows and orphans also, "wheresoever dispersed over the face of the globe, " is one of the most imp...

aisia, perfect initiates of a

Rite of very little importance, consisting of seven Degrees, and said to have been invented at Lyons. A very voluminous manuscript, translated from the German, was sold at Paris, in 1821, to M. Baille...

aitchison's-haven lodge

Also spelled ATCHESON, ACHISON. This was one of the oldest Operative Lodges consenting to the formation of the Grand Lodge of Scotland in 1736. The age of this Lodge, like many or most of the oldest L...

aitchison's-haven manuscript

One of the Old Charges, or records of Freemasonry now in the custody of the Grand Lodge of Scotland, was formerly preserved in the archives of the Aitchison-Haven Lodge, which met later on at Musselbu...

aix-la-chapelle

The French name of what is called in German, Aachen. A city of Germany, remarkable in Masonic history for a persecution which took place in the eighteenth century, and of which Gadicke, in his Freimau...

akirop

The name given, in the ritual of the Ancient and Accepted Rite, to one of the ruffians celebrated in the legend of the Third Degree. The word is said in the ritual to signify, an assassin. It might pr...

al-om-jah

In the Egyptian mysteries, this is said to have been the name given to the aspirant in the highest degree as the secret name of the Supreme Being. In its component parts we may recognize the .... ALE ...

alabama

Before the institution of the Grand Lodge of Alabama several Lodges there were organized by other Grand Jurisdictions. The first of these was Madison, No. l, at. Huntsville, established by, the Grand ...

alapa

A Latin word signifying a blow on the cheek with the open hand. Such a blow was given by the master to his manumitted slave as a symbol of manumission, and as a reminder that it was the last unrequite...

alarm

The verb to alarm signifies, in Freemasonry, to give notice of the approach of some one desirinq admission. Thus, to alarm the Lodge is to inform the Lodge that there is some one without who is seekin...

alaska

The Grand Master of the Territory, of Washington issued, on April 14, 1868, a Dispensation to form a Lodge at Sitka, Alaska. This Dispensation was renewed on October 13, 1868, and on September 17, 186...

alava, miguel ricardo de

Famous Spanish General, Aide-de-Camp under the Duke of Wellington and in 1814 imprisoned for being a Freemason.

alberta

(Canada). The Grand Lodge of Manitoba had jurisdiction over the Lodges in the Northwest Territories of Canada but the division of these into Provinces, on September 1, 1905, influenced Medicine Hat Lo...

albertus magnus

A scholastic philosopher of the Middle Ages, of great learning, but who had among the vulgar the reputation of being a magician. He was born at Lauingen, Swabia, in 1205, of an illustrious family, hi...

albrecht, heinrich christoph

A German author, who published at Hamburg, in 1792, the first and only part of a work entitled Materialen zu einer kritischen Geschichte der Freimaurerei, meaning Collections towards a Critical Histor...

alchemy

The Neo-Platonicians introduced at an early period of the Christian era an apparently new science, which they called ................, or the Sacred Science, which materially influenced the subsequent...

alchimy, the ordinall of

This is the title of a book by Thomas Norton, of Bristol, England, which was reproduced in facsimile by Williams & Wilkins Company, Baltimore, 1929, taken from Theatrum Chemicum Britannicum with annot...

aldworth, hon. mrs.

This lady, who is well known as the Lady Freemason, was the Hon.Elizabeth St. Leger, daughter of Lord Doneraile of Doneraile Court, County Cork, Ireland. She was born in 1693, and married in 1713 to R...

alethophiles

Greek for Lovers of Truth. Graf von Manteuffel as president organized this society in Berlin, 1736, upon Wolf's philosophical teaching, the search after positive truth. Kenning's Cydopaedia ...

alethophilote

Lover of Truth. Given by Thory as the Fifth Degree of the Order of African Architects (see his Acta Latatomorum, 1, page 292).

alexander i

I, Emperor of Russia. Alexander I succeeded Paul I in the year 1801, and immediately after his accession renewed the severe prohibitions of his predecessor against all secret societies, and especially...

alexander iii

king of Scotland, and legend tells us that he favored Freemasons and that Kilwinning Abbey was built under his guidance. Claims have been made that these facts refer rather to his son, David I. The ri...

alexandria, school of

When Alexander built the city of Alexandria in Egypt, with the intention of making it the seat of his empire, he invited thither learned men from all nations, who brought with them their peculiar noti...

algeria

The number of Lodges in Algeria is, in comparison with the size of the State, quite large. Several are controlled by the Grand Lodge of France and many more are under the Grand Orient of that country,...

alison, sir archibald

English author, born December 29, 1792, at Kenley, Shropshire, England; died at Glasgow, Scotland, May 23, 1867. A member of Glasgow Kilwinning Lodge, having received his Degrees in 1837 (see New Age,...

all souls' day

A day set apart for prayers in behalf of all the faithful dead. A festival established in 998 A.D. by an Abbot Odilo of Cluny in France. The feast falls on the 2nd of November, or on the 3rd if the 2...

all-seeing eye

An important symbol of the Supreme Being, borrowed by the Freemasons from the nations of antiquity. Both the Hebrews and the Egyptians appear to have derived its use from that natural inclination of f...

all-seeing eye, the

On page 52 Dr. Mackey interpreted the All-Seeing Eye as a symbol of God's omniscience, and in doing so had at the time (about 1870) the support of the Masonic students of his generation. The soun...

allah

Assyrian (Figure 1), ilu; Aramaic, elah,' Hebrew, eloah. The Arabic name of God, derived from (Figure 2) hah, god, and the article (Figure 3) al, expressing the God by way of eminence. In the gre...

allegiance

Every Freemason owes allegiance to the Lodge, Chapter, or other body of which he is a member, and also to the Grand Lodge, Grand Chapter or other supreme authority from which that body has received it...

allegory

A discourse or narrative in which there is a literal and a figurative sense, a patent and a concealed meaning ; the literal or patent sense being intended, by analogy or comparison, to indicate the fi...

allen, viscount john

From 1744 to 1745 Brother Allen was Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of Ireland.

alliance, sacred

An organization of twenty-one brethren possessing the ultimate degree of the Scottish Rite, was formed in New York September 19, 1872, to assemble annually on that day. One by one, in the due course o...

allied masonic degrees

A body has been formed in England called the Grand Council of the Allied Masonic Degrees, in order to govern various Degrees or Orders having no central authority of their own. The principal degrees c...

allocution

A word of Latin origin and meaning something spoken to. The address of the presiding officer of a Supreme Council of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite is sometimes so called. First used by the Co...

allowed

In the old manuscript Constitutions, this word that is now unusual is found in the sense of accepted. Thus, "Every Mason of the Craft that is Mason allowed, ye shall do to him as ye would be done...

almanac, masonic

Almanacs for the special use of the Fraternity are annually published in many countries of Europe, but the custom has not been so favored in America. As early as 1752 we find an Almanach des Francs-Ma...

almanacs

The annual almanac was the Eighteenth Century's monthly magazine, encyclopedia, calendar, a repository of literature, and what not, and is the mirror of the American mind between 1700 and the Rev...

almighty

In Hebrew ...., pronounced Ale Shad-dahee. The name by which God was known to the patriarchs before He announced Himself to Moses by His Tetragrammatonic name of Jehovah (see Exodus vi, 3). Almighty r...

almond tree

When it is said in the passage of Scripture from the twelfth chapter of Ecclesiastes, sometimes read during the ceremonies of the Third Degree, "the almond tree shall flourish," reference is...

almoner

An officer elected or appointed in the Continental Lodges of Europe to take charge of the contents of the alms-box, to carry into effect the charitable resolutions of the Lodge, and to visit sick and ...

alms-box

A box which, toward the close of the Lodge, is handed around by an appropriate officer for the reception of such donations for general objects of charity as the brethren may feel disposed to bestow. T...

almsgiving

Although almsgiving, or the pecuniary relief of the destitute, was not one of the original objects for which the Institution of Freemasonry was established, yet, as in every society of men bound toget...

alnwick manuscript

This manuscript is written on twelve quarto pages as a preface to the Minute Book of the Company and Fellowship of Freemasons of a Lodge held at Alnwick, where it appears under the heading of The Maso...

aloyau, societe de l

The word Atoyau is the French name for a sirloin of beef and hence the title of this society in English would be The Society of the Sirloin. This was a Masonic association, which existed in France bef...

alpha and omega

The first, and last letters of the Greek alphabet, referred to in the Royal Master and some of the advanced degrees. They are explained by this passage in Revelations &hibar; xxii, 13 '1: '&...

alpha lodge

Shortly after the Civil War a constitutional number of white citizens asked for a Dispensation to organize a Lodge at Newark, New Jersey. The Grand Master issued such authority. In due course the Gran...

alphabet, angels

In the old rituals of the Fourth or Secret Master's Degree of the Scottish and some other Rites, we find this passage : ''The seventy-two names, like the name of the Divinity, are to be...

alphabet, hebrew

figuur Nearly all of the significant words in the Masonic Rituals are of Hebraic origin, and in writing them in the rituals the Hebrew letters are frequently used. For convenience of reference, that a...

alphabet, number of letters in

In the Sandwich Island alphabet there are 12 letters; the Burmese, 19; Italian, 20; Bengalese, 21; Hebrew, Syrian, Chaldee, Phoenician, and Samaritan, 22 each; Latin, 23; Greek, 24; French, 25; German...

alphabet, samaritan

figuur It is believed by Scholars that, previous to the captivity, the alphabet now called the Samaritan was employed by the Jews in transcribing the copies of the law, and that it was not until their...

alpina

refers to the Grand Lodge of Switzerland. A Lodge was organized at Geneva in 1736, the Worshipful Master, a Scotchman, being the following year appointed a Provincial Grand Master by the Grand Lodge o...

altar

figuur The most important article of furniture in a Lodge-room is undoubtedly the altar. It is worth while, then, to investigate its character and its relation to the altars of other religious institu...

altenburg, congress of

Altenburg is a town in Germany about twenty-three miles south of Leipzig and capital of the Duchy of Saxe-Aitenburg. Here in the month of June, 1764, the notorious Johnson, or Leucht, who called himse...

altenburg, lodge at

One of the oldest Lodges in Germany is the Lodge of Archimedes of the Three Tracing Boards, or Archimedes zu den drei Reissbrettern, in Altenburg. This Lodge was instituted on January 31, 1742, by a D...

amai sagghi

Great labor. The name of the fifth step of the mystic ladder of Kadosh, Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite.

amar-jah

Hebrew ...., God spake; a significant word in the high degrees of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite. Strong prefers the pronunciation am-ar-yaw- or am-ar-yaw-hoo for the expression in Hebrew of G...

amaranth

A plant well known to the ancients, the Greek name of which signifies never withering. It is the Cetosia cristata of the botanists. The dry nature of the flowers causes them to retain their freshness ...

amaranth, order of the

An organization instituted by Queen Christina of Sweden in 1653 and numbering thirty-one members, there being fifteen knights and fifteen ladies, and the Queen officiating as Grand Mistress. The insig...

amen

Sometimes used as a response to a Masonnic prayer, though in England, as well as in the United States, The formula is so mote it be. The word Amen signifies in Hebrew verily, truly, certainty. "I...

amendment

All amendments to the by-laws of a Lodge must be submitted to the Grand or Provincial or District Lodge for its approval. An amendment to a motion pending before a Lodge takes precedence of the origi...

american mercury article

In its issue for February, 1941 (page 184), the American Mercury, a national monthly magazine specializing in non-fiction articles for the well educated, published "The Annihilation of Freemasonr...

american mysteries

Among the many evidences of a former state of civilization among the aborigines of America which seem to prove their origin from the races that inhabit the Eastern hemisphere, not the least remarkable...

american protective association

European and American Roman Catholic writers link the American Protective Association with Freemasonry, and classify it as either a camouflaged "political arm" of the Craft or as a Side Orde...

american rectified martinist order

This Body was organized at Cleveland, Ohio, at a General Convocation held on June 2, 1902. The Martinist Body from which this American organization obtained its powers was established at Paris in 1887...

american rite

The argument for the use of this term is given by Doctor Mackey thus: "it has been proposed, and I think with propriety, to give this name to the series of degrees conferred in the United States...

american system, the

The once universally established custom of describing the branches of Freemasonry as the York Rite and the Scottish Rite is falling into a disuse which an increasing number of Grand Bodies are hoping ...

americanisms

In an article contributed to the New York Masonic Outlook, in 1931, Brother Sir Alfred Robbins, President of the Board of General Purposes of the Grand Lodge of England, and present in America at the ...

ameth

Properly Emeth, which see.

amethyst

Hebrew ....., achlemah. The ninth stone in the breastplate of the high priest. The amethyst is a stone in hardness next to the diamond, and of a deep red and blue color resembling the breast of a dove...

amis reunis, loge des

The Lodge of United Friends, founded at Paris in 1771, was distinguished for the talents of many of its members, among whom was Savalette de Langes, and played for many years an important part in the ...

ammonitish war

A war oi interest in connection with the Fellow Craft Degree. The Ammonites were the descendants of the younger son of Lot, and dwelt east of the river Jordan, but originally formed no part of the lan...

ample form

When the Grand Master is present at the opening or closing of the Grand Lodge, it is said to be opened or closed "in ample form." Any ceremony performed by the Grand Master is said to be don...

amru

The name given to the Phoenician carpenter, who is represented in some legends as one of the assassins, Fanor and Metusael being the other two.

amshaspands

The name given in the Zoroastrian religion of the ancient Persians, the Parsees, in the Zend- Avesta, their bible an d prayer book, to the six good genii or powerful angels who continuously wait round...

amun

The Supreme God among the Egyptians. He was a concealed god, and is styled "the Celestial Lord who sheds light on hidden things." From him all things emanated, though he created nothing. He ...

anachronism

Some Ritual makers, especially when they have been ignorant and uneducated, have often committed anachronisms or errors as to periods of time or dates by the introduction into Masonic ceremonies of ma...

anagram

The letters of a word or phrase so transposed as to make a different word or phrase. The manufacture of anagrams out of proper names or other words has always been a favorite exercise, sometimes to pa...

ananiah

The name of a learned Egyptian, who is said to have introduced the Order of Mizraim from Egypt into Italy. Doctor Oliver (in his Landmarks, ii, page 75 ), states the tradition, but doubts its authenti...

anchor and ark

The anchor, as a symbol of hope, does not appear to have belonged to the ancient and classic system of symbolism. The Goddess Spes, the word meaning Hope, was among the ancients represented in the for...

anchor, order of knights and ladies of the

A system of Freemasonry for both sexes wich arose in France in the year 1745. It was a schism which sprang out of the order of Felicity from Which it differed only in being somewhat more refined . Its...

ancient and modern

The use of these words is frequently assumed to be understood as a expressive of a rebuke or even of contempt. Brother W. J. Chetwode Crawley (Caementaria Hibernica, Fasciculus 1, page 18) points to a...

ancient and moderns

The article which begins at page 75 was written before the publication of some 200 or so Histories and Minute Books of old British and American Lodges, and before the special researches inspired by He...

ancient and primitive rite of freemasonry, otherwise of memphis ancient and primitive rite

This rite claims a derivation from Egypt, and an organization from the High Grades which had entered Egypt before the arrival of the French Army, and it has been asserted that Napoleon and Kleber were...

ancient craft masonry

This is the popular name given to the three symbolic degrees of Entered Apprentice, Fellow Craft, and Master Mason. The degree of Royal Arch is not generally included under this appellation; although...

ancient free and accepted masons

The title most generally assumed by the English and American Grand Lodges (see Tilles of Grand Lodges).

ancient grand lodge, notes on

The miscellany of data below is given to supplement the general survey of the Ancient Grand Lodge of England, of 1751, on page 75. These data have as much interest for American Masons as for English b...

ancient of days

A title supplied, in the visions of Daniel, to Jehovah, to signify that His days are beyond reckoning. Used by Webb in the Most Excellent Master's song. Fulfilled is the promise By the ANCIENT OF...

ancient or ancient or atholl freemasons

In 1751 some Irish Freemasons in London established a body which they called the "Grand Lodge of England according to the Old Institutions," and they styled themselves Ancient and the member...

ancient reformed rite

A Rite differing very s1ightly from the French Rite, or Rite Moderns, of which, indeed, it is said to be only a modification. It is practiced by the Grand Lodge of Holland and the Grand Orient of Bel...

ancient york freemasons

One of the names of Lodges of Ancient Freemasons, which see.

ancients and moderns

The article which begins at page 75 was written before the publication of some 200 or so Histories and Minute Books of old British and American Lodges, and before the special researches inspired by He...

anderson manuscript

In the first edition of the Constitutions of the Freemasons, published by Doctor Anderson in 1723, the author quorns on pages 32-3 from "a certain record of Freemasons, written in the reign of Ki...

anderson, james (entry a)

On September 29, 1721, the Mother Grand Lodge, then only four years old, left it on record that, "His Grace's Worship [Duke of Montague, Grand Master] and the [Grand] Lodge finding Fault wit...

anderson, james (entry b)

The Rev. James Anderson, D.D., a well known to all Freemasons as the compiler of the celebrated Book of Constitutions. The date and place of his birth have not yet been discovered with certainty, but...

andrassy, count julius

Born March 8, 1823, in Hungary., and died, February. 18, 1890. Statesman and patriot, from youth active in politics and civic affairs. Contributed to Brother Louis Kossuth's paper, Pesti Hirlap, ...

andre, christopher karl

An active Freemason, who resided at Brunn, in Moravia, where, in 1798, he was the Director of the Evangelical Academy. He was very zealously employed, about the end of the last century, in connection ...

andrea, john valentine

This distinguished philosopher and amiable moralist, who has been claimed by many writers as the founder of the Rosicrucian Order, was born on the 17th of August, 1586, at the small town of Herrenberg...

andrew grade

One of the oldest of the high Continental grades added to Craft Freemasonry, probably originated in France among Stuart partisans and thence passing into Germany and elsewhere.

andrew, apprentice and fellow craft of saint

The French for this is Apprenti et Compagnon de Saint Andr; the German being Andreas Lehrling und Geselle. The Fourth Degree of the Swedish Rite, which is almost precisely the same as the Elu Secret o...

andrew, favorite of saint

The French is Favori de Saint Andr. Usually called Knight of the Purple Collar. The Ninth Degree of the Swedish Rite.

androgynous degrees

From ..., a man, and ...., a woman. Those degrees relative to Freemasonry which are conferred on both men and women. Besides the degrees of the Adoptive Rite, which are practiced in France, there are ...

androgynous freemasonry

That so-called Freemasonry which is dedicated to the cultivation of the androgynous degrees. The Adoptive Rite of France is Androgynous Freemasonry.

angel

Angels were originally in the Jewish theology considered simply as messengers of God, as the name ...., herald or angel, pronounced mal-awk, imports, and the word is thus continually, used in the earl...

angelic brothers

The German for this expression is Engelsbruder. Sometimes called, after their founder, Gichtelites or Gichtelianer. A mystical sect of religious fanatics founded by one Gichtel, about the close of the...

angerona

The name of a pagan deity worshiped among the Romans. Pliny calls her the goddess of silence, and calmness of mind. Hence her statue has sometimes been introduced among the ornaments of Masonic edific...

angle

The inclination of two lines meeting in a point. Angles are of three kinds-acute, obtuse, and right angles. The right angle, or the angle of 90 degrees, is the principal one recognized in Freemasonry,...

angular triad

A name given by Oliver to the three presiding officers of a Royal Arch Chapter.

anima mundi

Latin, meaning Soul of the World. A doctrine of the early philosophers, who conceived that an immaterial force resided in nature and was the source of all physical and sentient life, yet not intellige...

animal symbolism

The history of Medieval Masonry (Operative Masonry) can be written in the form of sweeping generalizations, particularly about the use and the extraordinarily rapid spread of the Gothic Style. Or it c...

animal worship

The worship of animals is a species of idolatry that was especially practiced by the ancient Egyptians. Temples were erected by this people in their honor, in which they were fed and cared for during ...

annales chronologiques

The complete title is Annales Chronologiques, Litraires et Historiques de la Maonnerie des Pays-Bas, dater du 1" Janvier, 1814 (French, meaning the Chronological, Literary, and Historical Annals ...

annales originis magni galliarum orientis, etc.

This history of the Grand Orient of France is, in regard to its subject, the most valuable of the works of C. A. Thory. It comprises a full account of the rise, progress, changes, and revolutions of F...

anno bonefacio

Latin, meaning In the Year of the Blessing; abbreviated A.'. B.". This date has been used by the brethren of the Order of High Priesthood to signify the elapsed period calculated from the ye...

anno depositionis

Latin, meaning in the a year of the Deposit ; abbreviated A.'. Dep.'. The date used by Royal and Select Masters, which is found by adding 1000 to the Vulgar Era; thus, 1930+1000 =2930.

anno egyptiaco

Latin, meaning in the Egyptian year. The date used by the Hermetic Fraternity, and found by adding 5044 to the Vulgar Era prior to each July 20, being the number of years since the consolidation of th...

anno hebraico

Latin, meaning in the Hebrew year ; abbreviated A. '. H. '. The same as Anno Mundi; which see.

anno inventionis

Latin, meaning in the year of the Discovery; abbreviated A.'. I.'. or A.". Inv.'. The date used by Royal Arch Masons. Found by adding 530 to the Vulgar Era ; thus, 1930 + 530 =2460...

anno lucis

Latin, meaning in the Year of Light; abbreviated A.'. L.'. The date used in ancient Craft Freemasonry; found by adding 4000 to the Vulgar Era ; thus, 1930+ 4000 = 5930.

anno mundi

Latin, meaning in the Year of the World. The date used in the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite; found by adding 3760 to the Vulgar Era until September. After September, add one year more ; this is b...

anno ordinis

Latin, meaning in the Year of the Order; abbreviated A.'. O.'. The date used by Knights Templar; found by subtracting 1118 from the Vulgar Era; thus, 1930-1118 = 812.

annuaire

Some French Lodges publish annually a record of their most important proceedings for the past year, and a 1ist of their members. This publication is called an Annuaire, or Annual.

annual communication

All the Grand Lodges of the United States, except those of Massachusetts, Maryland, the District of Columbia, Pennsylvania, and Rhode Island, hold only one annual meeting; thus reviving the ancient cu...

annual proceedings

Every Grand Lodge in the United States publishes a full account of the proceedings at its Annual Communication, to which there is usually added a list of the subordinate Lodges and their members. Some...

annuities

In England, one of the modes of distributing the charities of a Lodge is to grant annuities to aged members or to the widows and orphans of those who are deceased. In 1842 the Royal Masonic Annuity fo...

anointing

The act of consecrating any person or thing by the pouring on of oil. The ceremony of anointing was emblematical of a particular sanctification to a holy and sacred use. As such it was practiced by bo...

anonymous society

A Society formerly existing in Germany, which consisted of seventy-two members, namely, twenty.-four Apprentices, twenty-four Fellow Crafts, and twenty-four Masters. It distributed much charity, but i...

ansyreeh

A sect found in the mountains of Libanon, of Northern Syria. the name is also given as Nusairiyeh. Like the Druses, toward whom, however, they entertain a violent hostility, and the Assassins, they ha...

antediluvian freemasonry

Among the traditions of Freemasonry, which, taken literally, become incredible, but which, considered allegorically, may contain a profound meaning, not the least remarkable are those which relate to ...

anthem

The anthem was originally a piece of church music sung by alternate voices. The word afterward, however, came to be used as a designation of that kind of sacred music which consisted of certain passag...

anthropologic school, the

The name given to a comparatively small number of Masonic writers and researchers who have not agreed with the largest number of Masonic scholars that Freemasonry originated in Medieval architecture a...

anti-masonic books

There is no country of the civilized world where Freemasonry has existed, in which opposition to it has not, from time to time, exhibited itself ; although it has always been overcome by the purity an...

anti-masonic party

A party organized in the United States of America soon after the commencement of the Morgan excitement, professedly, to put down the Masonic Institution as subversive of good government, but really ...

anti-masonry (entry a)

Opposition to Freemasonry. There is no country in which Freemasonry has ever existed in which this opposition has not from time to time exhibited itself ; although, in general, it has been overcome by...

anti-masonry (entry b)

Of the 225 or so Anti-Masonic books on the shelves in any one of our Masonic Libraries more than nine-tenths of them are about the particular Anti-Masonic Crusade which ensued upon the so-called Morga...

anti-semitism and masonry

Freemasonry is neither anti-Semitic, nor pro-Semitic. The question lies outside of, and apart from, the Fraternity ; and ever has. It would therefore have no proper place in this or in any other Mason...

antin, duke d

Elected perpetual Grand Master of the Freemasons of France, on the 24th of June, 1738. He held the office until 1743, when he died, and was succeeded by the Count of Clermont. Clavel, Histoire Pittore...

antipodeans

The French expression being Les Antipodiens. The name of the Sixtieth Degree of the seventh series of the collection of the Metropolitan Chapter of France (Acta Latomorum, 1, page 294).

antiquity manuscript

This celebrated manuscript is now, and has long been, in the possession of the Lodge of Antiquity, at London. It is stated in the subscription to have been written, in 1686, by, "Robert Padgett, ...

antiquity of freemasonry

Years ago in writing an article on this subject under the impressions made upon me by the fascinating theories of Doctor Oliver, though I never completely accepted his views, 1 was led to place the or...

antiquity, lodge of

The oldest Lodge in England, and one of the four which concurred in February, 1717, in the meeting at the Apple-Tree Tavern, London, in the formation of the Grand Lodge of England. At that time the Lo...

antoine, orllie

Ever since the invention of writing the race of authors has had a share of individualities, eccentrics, wild men and madmen as much as any other art or calling; the tribe of Masonic authors, one must ...

anton hieronymus

In the examination of a German stanmetz, or stonemason, this is said to have been the name of the first Freemason. The expression is unquestionably a corruption of Adon Hiram.

anton, dr. carl gottlob von

A German Masonic writer of considerable reputation, who died at Gorlitz on the 17th of November, 1818. He is the author of two historical works on Templarism, both of which are much esteemed. l. Vers...

antrim, earl william of

Brother W. J. Hughan's Memorials of the Union says the Earl of Antrim was Grand Master from 1782 to 1790 of the Ancient or Athol Masters.

anubis or anepu

Egyptian deity, son of Osiris and Nephthys. He was an equivalent to the Greek Hermes. Having the head of a jackal, with pointed ears and snout, which the Greeks frequently changed to those of a dog. A...

aphanism

In the Ancient Mysteries there was always a legend of the death or disappearance of some hero god, and the subsequent discovery of the body and its resurrection. The concealment of this body by those...

apis

The sacred bull, held in high reverence by the Egyptians as possessing Divine powers, especially the gift of prophecy. As it was deemed essential the animal should be peculiarly marked by nature, much...

apocalypse, freemasonry of the

The Greek word apocalypsis means a revelation and thus is frequently applied to the last book of the New Testament. The adoption of Saint John the Evangelist as one of the patrons of our Lodges, has g...

apocalypse, order of the

An Order instituted about the end of the seventeenth century, by one Gabrino, who called himself the Prince of the Septenary Number or Monarch of the Holy Trinity. He enrolled a great number of artis...

aporrheta

Greek, . The holy things in the Ancient Mysteries which were known only to the initiates, and were not to be disclosed to the profane, were called the aporrheta. What are the aporrheta of Freemasonry...

appeal, right of

The right of appeal is an inherent right belonging to every Freemason, and the Grand Lodge is the appellate body to whom the appeal is to be made. Appeals are of two kinds: first, from the decision o...

appendant orders

In the Templar system of the United States, the degrees of Knight of the Red , Cross and Knight of Malta are called Appendant Orders because they are conferred as appendages to that of the Order of th...

apple-tree tavern

The place where the four Lodges of London met in 1717, and organized the Grand Lodge of England. This tavern was situated in Charles Street, Covent Garden.

apprenti

French for Apprentice

apprenti et compagnon de saint

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apprenti et compagnon de saint andre

French for Apprentice and Companion of Saint Andrew, the Fourth Grade of the Swedish system. The Fifth Grade is known as Matre de Saint Andr or Master of Sint Andrew, and the Ninth Degree being known ...

apprentice architect

The French expression is Apprenti Architecte. A degree in the collection of Fustier.

apprentice architect, perfect

The French being Apprenti Architecte, Parfait. A degree in the collection of Le Page.

apprentice architect, prussian

The French being Apprenti Architecte, Prussien. A degree in the collection of Le Page.

apprentice cohen

The French being Apprenti Con. A degree in the collection of the Archives of the Mother Lodge of the Philosophic Rite.

apprentice degrees

Thory gives this list of the various rites: 1. Apprentice Architect; Apprenti Architecte, a Grade in title collection of Fustier. 2. Apprentice Perfect ,Architect; Apprenti Architecte Parfait, in Le ...

apprentice mason

The French is Apprenti Maon. The Entered Apprentice of French Freemasonry.

apprentice masoness

The French is Apprentie Maonne. The First Degree of the French Rite of Adoption. The word Masoness is a neologism, perhaps an unsanctioned novelty, but it is in accordance with the genius of our langu...

apprentice masoness, egyptian

The French is Apprentie Maonne Egyptienne. The First Degree of Cagliostro's Egyptian Rite of Adoption.

apprentice of the egyptian secrets

The French is Apprenti des secrets Egyptiens. The First Degree of the Order of African Architects.

apprentice philosopher to the number 9

The French is Apprenti Philosophe au Nombre 9. A Degree in the collection of M. Peuvret.

apprentice philosopher, by the number 3

The French is Apprenti Philosophe par le Nombre 3. A Degree in the collection of M. Peuvret.

apprentice philosopher, hermetic

The French is Apprenti Philosophe Herm,tique. A degree in the collection of M. Peuvret.

apprentice theosophist

The French is Apprenti Thosophe. The First Degree of the Rite of Swedenborg.

apprentice, cabalistic

The French is .Apprenti Cabalistique. A degree in the collection of the Archives of the Mother Lodge of the Philosophic Rite.

apprentice, egyptian

The French being Apprenti, Egyptien. The First Degree of the Egyptian Rite of Cagliostro.

apprentice, entered

The First Degree of Freemasonry, in all the rites, is that of Entered Apprentice. In French it is called apprenti; in Spanish, aprendiz; in Italian, apprendente; and in German, lehrling; in all of whi...

apprentice, hermetic

The French is Apprenti Hermtique. The Thirteenth Degree, ninth series, of the collection of the Metropolitan Chapter of France.

apprentice, mystic

The French is Apprenti Mystique. A Degree in the collection of M. Pyron. * APPRENTICE OF PARACELSUS. The French is Apprenti de Paracelse. A Degree in the collection of M. Peuvret. There existed a ...

apprentice, scottish

The French is Apprenti Ecossais. This Degree and that of Trinitarian Scottish Apprentice, which in French is Apprenti Ecossais Trinitaire, are contained in the collection of Pyron.

apron

There is no one of the symbols of Speculative Freemasonry more important in its teachings, or more interesting in its history, than the lambskin, or white leathern apron. Commencing its lessons at an ...

apron lecture

The coming years may bring to you success, The victory laurel wreath may deck your brow, And you may feel Love's hallowed caress, And have withal domestic tenderness, And fortune's god may s...

aprons, george washington's masonic

Two aprons of a Masonic and historic character were owned by General George Washington. One of these was brought to this country by our Masonic Brother, the Marquis de Lafayette, in1784. An object of ...

apuleius, lucius

Roman author, born at Madaura in northern Africa about 125 to 130 A.D. Well educated, widely traveled, he became notable as lecturer and advocate at Rome and Carthage. Accused of Witchcraft by the re...

arabia

This country is a peninsula forming the southwestern extreme of Asia. The Lodge of Integrity attached to the 14th Regiment of Foot, warranted June 17, 1846, and constituted on October 20 at Halifax, N...

arabici

An Arabian sect of the second century, who believed that the soul died with the body, to be again revived with it at the general resurrection.

aranyaka

An appendage to the Veda of the Indians supplementary to the Brahmanas, but giving more prominence to the mystical sense of the rites of worship.

arbroath, abbey of

Erected in Scotland during the twelfth century. Rev. Charles Cordinet, in his description of the mins of North Britain, has given an account of a seal of the Abbey Arbroath marked ''Initiati...

arcade de la pelleterie

The name of derision even to the Orient tif Clermont in France, that is to say, to the Old Grand Lodge, before the union in 1799.

arcana

Latin, meaning secrets or inner mystery.

arcani disciplina

The mode of initiation into the primitive Christian church (see Discipline of the Secret).

arch of enoch

The Thirteenth Degree of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite is sometimes so called (see Knight of the Ninth Arch).

arch of heaven

Job (xxvai, 11) compares heaven to an arch supported by pillars. "The pillars of heaven tremble and are astonished at his reproof." Doctor Cutbush, on this passage, remarks, "The arch ...

arch of solomon, royal

The Thirteenth Degree of the Ancient and Accepted Rite is sometimes so called, by which it is distinguished fiom the Royal Arch Degree of the English and American systems.

arch of steel

The grand honors are conferred, in the French Rite, by two ranks of Brethren elevating and crossing their drawn swords. They call it in French the Voute d'Acier.

arch of zerubbabel, royal

The seventh Degree of the American Rite is sometimes so called to distinguish it from the Royal Arch of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite, which is called the Royal Arch of Solomon.

arch, antiquity of the

Writers on architecture have, until within a few years, been accustomed to suppose that the invention of the arch and keystone was not before the era of Augustus. But the researches of modern antiquar...

archeology

The science which is engaged in ahe study of those minor branches of antiquities which do not enter into the course of general history, such as national architecture, genealogies, manners, customs her...

archeology and freemasonry

Archeology underwent at about the turn of the century a transformation which turned it from an almost esoteric specialty or hobby, engaged in by a small number of experts, into a large and ever-expand...

archetype

The principal type, figure, pattern, or example whereby and whereon a thing is formed. In the science of symbolism, the archetype is the thing adopted as a symbol, whence the symbolic idea is derived....

archimagus

The chief officer of the Mithraic Mysteries in Persia. He was the representative of Ormudz, or Ormazd, the type of the good, the true, and the beautiful, who overcame Ahriman, the spirit of evil, of t...

architect

In laying the corner-stones of Masonic edifices, and in dedicating them after they are finished, the architect of the building, although he may be a profane, is required to take a part in the ceremoni...

architect and master of masons

Medieval Freemasons were organized as a body when employed on a cathedral, a castle, an abbey, or any other large building. This body, or Lodge, though its own officers were members of it, and though ...

architect by 3, 5, and 7, grand

The French expression is Grande Architecte par 3, 5, et 7. A degree in the manuscript of Peuvret's collection.

architect of solomon

The French expression is Architecte de Salomon. A degree in the manuscript collection of M. Peuvret.

architect, engineer and

An officer in the French Rite, whose duty, it is to take charge of the fumiture of the Lodge. In the Scottish Rite such officer in the Consistory has charge of the general arrangement of all preparato...

architect, grand

The French expression is Grande Architecte and is used in reference to the following: 1. The Sixth Degree of the Rite of Martinism. 2. The Fourth Degree of the Rite of Elect Cohens. 3. The Twenty-thir...

architect, little

The French expression is Petit Architecte and refers to the following : 1. The Twenty-third Degree of the third series of the collection of the Metropolitan Chapter of Franee. 2. The Twenty-second Deg...

architect, perfect

The French phrase is, Parfait Architecte. The Twenty-fifth, Twenty-sixth, and Twenty-seventh Degrees of the Rite of Mizraim are Apprentice, Fellow Craft, and Master Perfeet Architect.

architect, perfect and sublime grand

The French is Parfait et Sublime Grande Architecte. A degree in the collection of the Loge de Saint Louis des Amis Runis at Calais.

architectonicus

A Greek word, adopted in Latin, signifying belonging to architecture. Thus, Vitruvius writes, rationes architectonicae, meaning the rules of architecture. But as Architecton signifies a Master Builde...

architecture

The urge toward art of constructing dwellings, as a shelter from the heat of summer and the cold of winter, must have been resorted to from the very first moment in which man became subjected to the p...

architecture, first & chief groundes of

In the year of our Lord 1912 Laurence Weaver, F.S.A., Hon. A.R.I.B.A., set up for himself a fair and durable monument by reproducing an exact facsimile of the original edition of The First & Chief Gro...

architecture, piece of

The French expression is Moreau d'architecture. The name given in French Lodges to the Minutes and has also been applied to the literary, musical, or other contributions of any Brother and especi...

archives

This word means, properly, a place of deposit for records; but it means also the records themselves. Hence the archives of a Lodge are its records and other documents. The legend in the Second Degree,...

archives, grand guardian of the

An officer in the Grand Council of Rites of Ireland who performs the duties of Secretary General.

archives, grand keeper of the

An officer in some of the Bodies of the advanced degrees a whose duties are indicated by the name. In the Grand Orient of France he is called Grand Garde des Timbres et Sceaux, as he combines the duti...

archiviste

An officer in French Lodges who has charge of the archives. The Germans call him the Archivar.

ardarel

A word in the advanced degrees, used as the name of the angel of fire. It is a distorted form of Adariel, or aw-dar-ale, meaning in Hebrew the splendor of God.

arelim

A word used in some of the rituals of the advanced degrees. It is found in Isaiah (xxxiii, 7), where it is translated, in the authorized version, "valiant ones," and by Lowth, ''mi...

areopagus

The third apartment in a Council of Kadosh is so called. The place represents a tribunal, and the name is derived from the celebrated court of Athens.

argentine republic

A federal republic of south America. The Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania granted a Charter on September 5, 1825, to Southern Star Lodge, No. 205, at Buenos Aires. This was the first Lodge established in t...

argonauts, order of

A German androgynous or male and female society founded in 1775, by Brethren of the Rite of Strict Observance. The name is from a Greek myth of those who sailed with Jason on the ship Argo in search ...

ariel

In the demonology of the Cabala, the word is applied to the spirit of air; the guardian angel of innocence and purity : hence the Masonic aynonym. A name applied to Jerusalem ; and to a water spirit....

arithmetic

That science which is engaged in considering the properties and powers of numbers, and ,wich, from its manifest necessity in all the operations of weighing, numbering, and measuring, must have had its...

arizona

The year 1866 saw the first Lodge established in Arizona when, on October 11, Aztlan Lodge at Prescott was chartered by the Grand Lodge of California. On March 23, 1882, delegates of three Lodges : Ar...

arjuna society

Arjuna is the name of a personification in the Sanskrit poem, the Bhagavad Gita, and was given to a society formed at Manchester, New Hampshire, on January 1, 1893, for archeological studies, by S. C....

ark

In the ritual of the American Royal Arch Degree three arks are mentioned: 1. The Ark of Safety, or of Noah ; 2. The Ark of the Covenant, or of Moses; 3. The Substitute Ark, or the Ark of Zerubbabel. I...

ark and dove

An illustrative Degree, preparatory to the Royal Arch, and usually conferred, when conferred at all, immediately before the solemn ceremony of exaltation. The name of Noachite, sometimes given to it,...

ark mariner, jewel of royal

The jewel of this Degree prefigures the teachings, which are unique, and draws their symbols from the sea, rain, ark, dove, olive-branch, and Rainbow. This last symbol, as the Almighty's sign, ov...

ark of the covenant

The Ark of the Covenant or of the Testimony was a chest, originally constructed by Moses at God's command (Exodus xxv, 10), in which were kept the two tables of stone, on which were engraved the ...

ark, noah's

Known also as the Ark of Safety. Constructed by Shem, Ham, and Japheth, under the superintendence of Noah, and in it, as a chosen tabernacle of refuge, the patriarch's family took refuge. This ar...

ark, substitute

The chest or coffer which constitutes a part of the furniture, and is used in the ceremonies of a Chapter of Royal Arch Masons, and in a Council of Select Masters according to the American system, is ...

arkansas

The modem school of historians, Masonic and profane, write history, from original sources when possible, but in this case that method is no longer possible, as all the records of the Grand Lodge of th...

arkite worship

The almost universal prevalence among the nations of antiquity of some tradition of a long past deluge, gave rise to certain mythological doctrines and religious ceremonies, to which has been given th...

armenbuchse

The poor-box; the name given by German Freemasons to the box in which collections of money are made at a Table-Lodge for the relief of poor Brethren and their families.

armes

A corrupted form of Hermes, found in the Lansdowne and some other old manuscripts.

armiger

I. A bearer of arms. The title given by Heralds to the Esquire who waited on a Knight. 2. The Sixth Degree of the Order of African Architects.

armor

In English statutes, the word armor means the whole apparatus of war ; offensive and defensive arms. In the Order of the Temple pieces of armor are used to a limited extent. In the Chivalric Degrees o...

armory

An apartment attached to the asylum of a Commandery of Knights Templars, in which the swords and other parts of the costume of the knights are deposited for safe-keeping.

arms of freemasonry

Stow says that the Freemasons were incorporated as a company in the twelfth year of Henry IV, l412. Their arms were granted to them, in 1472, by William Hawkesloe, Clarenceux King- at-Arms, and are az...

arnold, benedict

Born at Norwich, Connecticut, January 14, 1741, and died at London, England, June l4, 1801. Settled in New Haven, 1762, and as captain of the local militia offered his services in Revolutionary War, b...

aroba

Pledge, covenant, agreement. Latin, Arrhabo, a token or pledge. Hebrew, Arab, pronounced aw-rab, which is the root of Arubbah, pronounced ar-oob-baw, surety, hostage. This important word, in the Fourt...

arras, primordial chapter of

Arras is a town in France in the department of Pas de Calais, where, in the year 1747, Charles Edward Stuart, the Pretender, is said to have established a Sovereign Primordial and Metropolitan Chapter...

arrears, exclusion for

Sm Exclusion

arrest of charter

To arrest the Charter of-a Lodge is a technical phrase. by which is meant to suspend the work of a Lodge, to prevent it from holding its usual communications, and to forbid it to transact any business...

ars quatuor coronatorum (entry a)

Ars Quatuor Coronatorum are the volumes of Transactions published each year since its constitution in 1886 by the Quatuor Coronati Lodge of Research, No. 2076, London, England. They contain the treati...

ars quatuor coronatorum (entry b)

Name under which the transaction of the Lodge Quatuor Coronati, No. 2076, London, the premier litemry Lodge of the world, have been pub1ished in annual volumes, commencing with the year 1888.

arthusius, gotthardus

A learned native of Dantzic, Rector of the Gymnasium at Frankfort-the-Main, who wrote many works on Rosicrucianism, under the assumed name of Irenaeus Agnostus (see agnostus).

artillery company, ancient

Like the Worshipful Company of Musicians (which see) the history of the Ancient and Honorary Artillery Company of England runs a cotirse singularly parallel with the course of Masonic history, so that...

artisan, chief

An officer in the Council of Knights of Constantinople.

arts

In the Masonic phrase, "arts, parts, and points of the Mysteries of Freemasonry" ; ants means the knowledge, or things. made known, parts the degrees into which Freemasonry is divided, and p...

arundel, thomas howard, earl of

Tradition places Arundel as the Grand Master of English Freemasons from 1633 to 1635. This claim is in accordance with the accounts of Anderson and Preston.

aryan

One of the three historical divisions of religion-the other two being the Turanian and the Shemitic. It produced Brahmanism, Buddism, and the Code of Zoroaster.

asarota

A variegated pavement used for flooring in temples and ancient edifices.

ascension day

Also called Holy Thursday. A festival of the Christian church held in commemoration of the ascension of our Lord forty days after Easter. It is celebrated as a feast day by Chapters of Rose Croix.

ases

The twelve gods and as many goddesses in the Scandinavian mythology.

ashe, d.d., rev. jonathan

A literary plagiarist who resided in Bristol, England. In 1814 he published The Masonic Manual; or Lectures on Freemasonry. Ashe does not, it is true, pretend to originality, but abstains from giving ...

asher, dr. carl wilhelm

The first translator into German of the Halliwell or Regius Manuscript, which he published at Hamburg, in 1842, under the title of Alteste Urkunde der Freimaurerei in England. This work contains both ...

ashlar

This is defined by Bailey as "Freestone as it comes out of the quarry." In speculative Freemasonry we adopt the ashlar, in two different states, as symbols in the Apprentice's Degree. T...

ashlar, perfect

The publication of a number of Minute Books of old Lodges since it was written calls for a revision of the paragraph on ASHLAR, on page 107. In one of his memoranda on the building of St. Paul s, Sir ...

ashmole's lodge

Elias Ashmole was made a Mason in the Lodge at Warrington, in Lancashire, England, October 16, 1646. This event was for some decades given prominent space in Masonic histories, partly because of the g...

ashmole, elias

A celebreted antiquary, and a the author of, among other works, the well-known History of the Order of the Garter, and founder of the Ashmolean Museum at Oxford. He was born at Litchfield, in England,...

asia

In the French Rite of Adoption, the East end of the Lodge is called Asia. The Lodge-room is divided into quarters called Realms, the French word being Climat, the East is Asia; the West, Europe; the N...

asia, initiated knights and brothers of

This Order was introduced in Berlin, or, as some say, in Vienna, in the year 1780, by a schism of several members of the German Rose Croix. They adopted a mixture of Christian, Jewish, and Mohammedan ...

asiatic turkey

The dominions of Turkey in Asia. Smyrna has one Lodge under the Grand Lodge of England and two under the Grand Orient of France. There are two Italian Lodges in the town and several others throughout ...

ask, seek, knock

In referring to the passage of Matthew (vii, 7), "Ask, and it shall be given you; seek, and ye shall find; knock, and it shall be opened unto you " Doctor Clarke says : "These three wor...

aspirant

One who eagerly seeks to know or to attain something. Thus, Warburton speaks of "the aspirant to the Mysteries." The word is applied also to one about to be initiated into Freemasonry. There...

assassins

The Ishmaelites, or Assassins, constituted a sect or confraternity, which was founded by Hassan Sabah, about the year 1090, in Persia. The name is derived, it is supposed, from their immoderate use of...

assassins of the third degree

There is in Freemasonry a legend of certain unworthy Craftsmen who entered into a conspiracy to extort from a distinguished Brother a secret of which he was the possessor. The legend is altogether sym...

assassins, cult of

At the time he wrote the article about the Assassins on page 108 Dr. Albert G. Mackey was endeavoring to enlarge the scope of Masonic studies, to open up new paths in many directions. The article has ...

assembly

The meetings of the Craft during the operative period in the Middle Ages, were called Assemblies, which appear to have been tantamount to the modem Lodges, and they are constantly spoken of in the Old...

associates of the temple

During the Middle Ages, many persons of rank, who were desirous of participating in the spiritual advantages supposed to be enjoyed by the Templars in consequence of the good works done by the Fratern...

association

Although an association a properly the union of men into society for a common purpose, the word is scarcely ever applied to the Order of Freemasonry. Yet its employment, although unusual, would not be...

assyrian architecture

The discovery in 1882 of the remains of a town, cloto and north of Nineveh, built by Sargon, about 721 B.C., in size about a mile square, with its angles facing the cardinal points, and the enclosure ...

astor, john jacob (entry a)

Born in lvaldorf, Germany, July 17, 1763, left an orphan as a boy, Astor came to New York City to join a brother, working his way, and arrived in 1784. He was founder of the American fur trade, a foun...

astor, john jacob (entry b)

Born in lvaldorf, Germany, July 17, 1763, left an orphan as a boy, Astor came to New York City to join a brother, working his way, and arrived in 1784. He was founder of the American fur trade, a foun...

astraea

The Grand Lodge established in Russia, on the 30th of August, 1815, assumed the title of the Grand Lodge of Astraea. It held its Grand East at St. Petersburg, and continued in existence until 1822, wh...

astrology (entry a)

The word astrology is not a true term because it always has been ambiguous, meaning one thing in one country or period of time, another thing in some other country or time, and one contradicting the o...

astrology (entry b)

A whence demanding the respect of the scholar, notwithstanding its designation as a black art, and, in a reflective sense, an occult science; a system of divination foretelling results by the relative...

astrology (entry c)

The word astrology is not a true term because it always has been ambiguous, meaning one thing in one country or period of time, another thing in some other country or time, and one contradicting the o...

asylum for aged freemasons

The Asylum for Aged and Decayed Freemasons is a magnificent edifice at Croydon in Surrey, England. The charity was established by Doctor Crucefix, after sixteen years of herculean toil, such as few me...

athelstan and the old charges (entry a)

On Page 110 is given a quotation from the Roberts MS. to the effect that Athelstan (King in England, 924-940) was a great lover of Masonry and gave Masons their Charter. In other versions of the Old C...

athelstan and the old charges (entry b)

On Page 110 is given a quotation from the Roberts MS. to the effect that Athelstan (King in England, 924-940) was a great lover of Masonry and gave Masons their Charter. In other versions of the Old C...

atholl masons

The Ancient Freemasons are sometimes called Atholl Freemasons, because they were presided over by the Third Duke of Atholl as their Grand Master from 1771 to 1774, and by the Fourth Duke from 1775 to ...

atlantis, lost continent of (entry a)

Rhapsodically Plato wove a brief story about a Lost Continent of Atlantis into one of his Dialogs, and Homer (or "Homer") has hints of a somewhat similar legend in his Odyssey; from so slend...

atlantis, lost continent of (entry b)

Plato wove a brief story about a Lost Continent of Atlantis into one of his Dialogs, and Homer (or "Homer") has hints of a somewhat similar legend in his Odyssey; from so slender a source wa...

austria

Freemasonry was introduced into Austria in 1742 by the establishment at Vienna of the Lodge of the Three Cannons. But it was broken up by the government in the following year, and thirty of its member...

austria hungary and czecho-slovakia

Freemasonry in these countries began when Francis Stephen, Duke of Lorraine, husband of the Empress Maria Theresia was made Entered Apprentice and Fellow Craft in 1731 in a Lodge of which Doctor Desag...

authentic

Formerly, in the science of diplomatica, ancient manuscripts were termed authentic when they were originals, and in opposition to copies. But in modern times the acceptation of the word has been enla...

authenticity of the scriptures

A belief in the authenticity of the Scriptures of the Old and New Testament as a religious qualification of initiation does not constitute one of the laws of Freemasonry, for such a regulation would d...

auxiliary degrees

According to Oliver, in his Historical Landmarks, ii, page 345, the Supreme Council of France, in addition to the thirty-three regular degrees of the Rite, confers six others, which he calls Auxiliary...

avenue

Forming an avenue is a ceremony sometimes practiced in the lower degrees, but more generally in the higher ones, on certain occasions of paying honors to superior officers. The Brethren form in two ra...

avignon

Town on the River Rhone in the south of France about 75 miles north-west of the seaport of Marseilles which was the headquarters of the Hermetic Grades from 1740 to the French Revolution. A drastic pe...

avignon, illuminati of

The French expression is Illumins d'Avignon. A rite instituted by Pernetti at Avignon, in France, in 1770, and transferred in the year 1778 to Montpellier, under the name of the Academy of True M...

award

In law, the judgment pronounced by one or more arbitrators, at the request of two parties who are at variance. "If any complaint be brought," say the Charges published by Anderson, "the...

ayes and noes

It is not according to Masonic usage to call for the ayes and nosses on any question pending before a Lodge. By a show of hands is the old and usual custom of determining the will of the Brethren.

aynon

Aynon, Agnon, Ajuon, and Dyon are all used in the old manuscript Constitutions for one whom they call the son of the King of Tyre, but it is evidently meant for Hiram Abif. Each of these words is most...

aytoun, william edmonstoune

Poet and humorist. Studied law but said "though he followed the law, he could never overtake it.'' Professor of rhetoric and literature, University of Edinburgh. Active member of the S...

azariah

The old French rituals have Azarias. A name in the advanced degrees signifying Helped of God.

azazel

Scapegoat, the demon of dry places. Understood by others to be the fallen angel mentioned in the Book of Enoch, and identical with Sammael, the Angel of Death. Symmachus says, the goat that departs; J...

azrael

From the Hebrew, meaning Help of God. In the Jewish and the Mohammedan mythology, the name of the angel who watches over the dying and separates the soul from the body. Prior to the intercession of Mo...

aztecs

Native name of one of the tribes in Mexico at the arrival of the Spaniards in America, and frequently used as meaning Mexicans. Early records and other remains of the Aztecs studied by Nuttall, Peabod...

azure

The clear blue color of the sky. Cerulean is also used to mean sky-blue but is really from a Latin word, Caeruleus, meaning dark blue. The appropriate color of the symbolic degrees; sometimes termed B...
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